Setting correct permission for Docker PHP-FPM on mounted folder

Now, if you have followed my guide on setting up Docker with PHP-FPM then you'll most likely face this issue where your files and directories permission will have to set to 777 in order for docker to write files to your mounted folder.

In order to resolve this, you'll need to reset your 777 mistakes using the command given in my reset files/directories permission article.

Once you've done that, you'll be back to your square one where your application can't write to your mounted folder.

Now, in your mounted folder assuming its in /root/www you'll need to look for the user that exec your php script in your php-fpm docker. By default its www-data (dahhh). So let's find out what this user id is on the parent machine by firing the following docker command

docker exec phpfpm id www-data

where phpfpm is the docker name of your PHP-FPM container. If you are not using PHP-FPM on a separate container, you can easily just replace phpfpm to your LEMP/LAMP docker container name.

and the above will show you something like this

[email protected]:~# docker exec phpfpm id www-data
uid=82(www-data) gid=82(www-data) groups=82(www-data),82(www-data)

the above means that on the parent machine, the user id for www-data is 82. Now, go ahead and change the user permission on your mounted folder to 82 with the following command

chown 82:82 -r /root/www

where /root/www is the example mounted folder used in this article.

Now, with the correct user permission, your application should be able to write correctly without the need to set your directories permissions to 777 which is pretty insecure.

Hope this helps.

Set Default Secure Files / Directories Permission on cPanel / Linux

In cPanel, if you accidentally alter the wrong files or directories' permission, you'll most likely get a 500 error. This is mainly due to the usage of SuPHP in your cPanel setup. Now, the below, snippets are pretty useful to reset or secure the permissions needed for both files and directories.

In order to reset your directories' permission. You'll need to fire the below command.

find . -type d -exec chmod 755 {} \;

where the above find all the directory on your current directory and exec permission 755 on it

In order to reset your files' permission. You'll need to fire the below command.

find . -type f -exec chmod 755 {} \;

where the above find all the files on your current directory and exec permission 755 on it.

In order to fix your cPanel account file permission issue. All you need to do is to fire the above 2 commands on the directory on your user account lets say hungred as shown below,

cd /home/hungred/public_html/

where hungred is your user account. Hope this helps.

How to move all cPanel accounts to new server via command line

This is a short how-to tutorial to migrate or transfer all cPanel accounts from my old 1.5TB server to another new SSD server through command line.

Backup all cPanel accounts

i am assuming, you know what you want, so we have to first backup all the cPanel accounts in our old system using the following command

ls /var/cpanel/users | while read a; do
/scripts/pkgacct $a
done

remember to screen first before doing the above, as this might take a while if there is a lot of accounts in your machine.

Transfer all cPanel accounts

now, we need to transfer all the cPanel accounts from our old server to the new ones. Notice the pkgacct script generate all the cpmove file on /home directory, use the command below,

bash-4.1# rsync -av --progress /home/*.tar.gz [email protected]:/home

where 192.168.0.2 is your new server. Now, all the files are transferring to our new server!

Restore all cPanel accounts

Finally, in our new server, fire the following command,

ls /home/ | awk -F'[-.]' '{print $2}' | while read a; do
/scripts/killacct --user=$a
/scripts/restorepkg $a
done

similarly, remmeber to screen first before doing the above.

Change new server ip address

You might want to change the ip address of your new server to the old ones. Do the following,

To change the server's main IP address, perform the following steps:
Open the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 file with a text editor.
Edit the IPADDR and GATEWAY lines to use the IP address and gateway of your old server.
Open the /etc/ips file with a text editor.
Add your old server's primary IP address, net mask, and gateway to the file.
Note:
Remove the new server’s primary IP address from this file if it is present.
Restart the network service with the following commands:
For CentOS, CloudLinux™, and Red Hat® Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 6 and earlier, and Amazon Linux, run the service network restart command.
Note:
Amazon Linux always runs in a NAT configuration. 
 
For CentOS, CloudLinux, and RHEL 7 and later, run the systemctl restart network command.
Run the /scripts/mainipcheck command to add the IP address to the /var/cpanel/mainip file.
Run the /scripts/fixetchosts command to add the IP address and hostname of your server to the /etc/hosts file.

and you should be good to go. Test it out and enjoy your new environment!

Using Command line to start, stop or reboot remote server with iDrac racadm

I've always like to set my Dell iDrac network management ip to a private one as compared to a public ones. However, when a dell server is causing a problem, i might not be able to access the server web interface since its an internal ip and the server might not be able to connect directly via ssh. In this case, how do i reboot the server without calling help from the datacenter? Apparently, there is a tool call racadm which can be used to assist such incident.

If you have access to the other network servers where you can still ping the dell iDrac private ip, you can fire the following commands to ensure that your server will reboot itself.

racadm -u ADMIN -p ADMIN -r 192.168.0.123 serveraction hardreset

In the above, case, i am connect to the idrac 192.168.0.123 and login with the ADMIN and password ADMIN to do a 'serveraction' with a hardreset. You can specifies the action. The options for the string are:

  • powerdown – Powers down the server module.
  • powerup – Powers up the server module.
  • powercycle – Issues a power-cycle to the server module.
  • hardreset – Issues a hard reset to the server module.

But do remember to install OpenManage or racadm on your server or else you are on your own! For more options available using racadm visit their doc page.

Easy Setup OpenVPN in 5 minutes with Debian or Centos or Ubuntu

Ok, i bet some times you will want to setup OpenVPN real quick in less than 5 minutes but have to go through with a lot of instruction and it might not work! Especially if you are on a VPS! Now let me explain how i did it in 5 minutes thanks to Nyr. If you are installing this on an OpenVZ machine, please update your host file as instructed at the bottom of this article, if you are not, just continue reading by firing up a VPS machine or a physical machine and fire the following instruction.

wget git.io/vpn --no-check-certificate -O ~/openvpn-install.sh; bash openvpn-install.sh

regardless of Debian, Centos or Ubuntu, this will work fine! Now, the script will ask you a few questions and starts installing

Welcome to this quick OpenVPN "road warrior" installer

I need to ask you a few questions before starting the setup
You can leave the default options and just press enter if you are ok with them

First I need to know the IPv4 address of the network interface you want OpenVPN
listening to.
IP address: 192.168.100.99

What port do you want for OpenVPN?
Port: 1194

Do you want OpenVPN to be available at port 53 too?
This can be useful to connect under restrictive networks
Listen at port 53 [y/n]: y

Do you want to enable internal networking for the VPN?
This can allow VPN clients to communicate between them
Allow internal networking [y/n]: y

What DNS do you want to use with the VPN?
   1) Current system resolvers
   2) OpenDNS
   3) Level 3
   4) NTT
   5) Hurricane Electric
   6) Yandex
DNS [1-6]: 2

Finally, tell me your name for the client cert
Please, use one word only, no special characters
Client name: example

I am installing OpenVPN in a OpenVZ machine. Therefore, i am throwing in the private ip of the machine instead of the public ones. Once the script finish installing and setup, it will ask you the following questions,

If your server is NATed (LowEndSpirit), I need to know the external IP
If that's not the case, just ignore this and leave the next field blank
External IP: 23.132.16.23

Finished!

Your client config is available at ~/cluster.ovpn
If you want to add more clients, you simply need to run this script another time!

And you will get a user ovpn file to install it into your computer! Now, if you would like to add more user, do the following

bash ~/openvpn-install.sh

and you will see the following screen.

Looks like OpenVPN is already installed
What do you want to do?

1) Add a cert for a new user
2) Revoke existing user cert
3) Remove OpenVPN
4) Exit

Select an option [1-4]:

This is specially easy for anyone to just setup your OpenVPN machine in less than 5 minutes and furthermore, you can easily config more users using the same old script. Pretty neat stuff if you asked me!

Installing OpenVPN in OpenVZ

Now, there are a few more things to do if you are in an OpenVZ, on the host machine, you might want to add the following criteria so that iptables is available and internet is forwarding to your client.

at the bottom of /etc/vz/vz.conf you will see the following configuration

## Defaults for containers
VE_ROOT=/var/lib/vz/root/$VEID
VE_PRIVATE=/var/lib/vz/private/$VEID

## Filesystem layout for new CTs: either simfs (default) or ploop
#VE_LAYOUT=ploop

## Load vzwdog module
VZWDOG="no"

## IPv4 iptables kernel modules to be enabled in CTs by default
IPTABLES="ipt_REJECT ipt_tos ipt_limit ipt_multiport iptable_filter iptable_mangle ipt_TCPMSS ipt_tcpmss ipt_ttl ipt_length"
## IPv4 iptables kernel modules to be loaded by init.d/vz script
IPTABLES_MODULES="$IPTABLES"

## Enable IPv6
IPV6="yes"

## IPv6 ip6tables kernel modules
IP6TABLES="ip6_tables ip6table_filter ip6table_mangle ip6t_REJECT"

change it to the following

## Defaults for containers
VE_ROOT=/var/lib/vz/root/$VEID
VE_PRIVATE=/var/lib/vz/private/$VEID

## Filesystem layout for new CTs: either simfs (default) or ploop
#VE_LAYOUT=ploop

## Load vzwdog module
VZWDOG="no"

## IPv4 iptables kernel modules to be enabled in CTs by default
#IPTABLES="ipt_REDIRECT ipt_LOG ipt_state ipt_recent xt_connlimit ipt_owner iptable_nat ipt_REJECT ipt_tos ipt_limit ipt_multiport iptable_filter iptable_mangle ipt_TCPMSS ipt_tcpmss ipt_ttl ipt_length"
## IPv4 iptables kernel modules to be loaded by init.d/vz script
#IPTABLES_MODULES="$IPTABLES"

## Enable IPv6
#IPV6="yes"

## IPv6 ip6tables kernel modules
#IP6TABLES="ip6t_REDIRECT ip6t_REJECT ip6t_tos ip6t_limit ip6t_multiport ip6t_TCPMSS ip6t_tcpmss ip6t_ttl ip6t_length ip6t_LOG ip6t_state ip6t_recent xt_connlimit ip6t_owner ip6table_nat ip6_tables ip6table_filter ip6table_mangle ip6t_REJECT"

## IPv4 iptables kernel modules to be enabled in CTs by default
IPTABLES="ipt_REDIRECT ipt_owner ipt_recent iptable_filter iptable_mangle ipt_limit ipt_multiport ipt_tos ipt_TOS ipt_REJECT ipt_TCPMSS ipt_tcpmss ipt_ttl ipt_LOG ipt_length ip_conntrack ip_conntrack_ftp ip_conntrack_irc ipt_conntrack ipt_state ipt_helper iptable_nat ip_nat_ftp ip_nat_irc ipt_state iptable_nat"
## IPv4 iptables kernel modules to be loaded by init.d/vz script
IPTABLES_MODULES="$IPTABLES"

## Enable IPv6
IPV6="yes"

## IPv6 ip6tables kernel modules
IP6TABLES="ip6_tables ip6table_filter ip6table_mangle ip6t_REJECT"
SKIP_SYSCTL_SETUP=yes

and make sure ip forward is enable by going to /etc/sysctl.conf and update the following to '1'

# Uncomment the next line to enable packet forwarding for IPv4
net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
net.ipv4.conf.default.forwarding=1
net.ipv4.conf.all.forwarding=1

and make sure Tun/TAP is enable for your VPS

# cat /dev/net/tun
cat: /dev/net/tun: File descriptor in bad state

If you are not seeing the above, do the following on your host machine,

vzctl set 101 --devnodes net/tun:rw --save
vzctl set 101 --devices c:10:200:rw --save 
vzctl stop 101 
vzctl set 101 --capability net_admin:on --save
vzctl start 101 
vzctl exec 101 mkdir -p /dev/net
vzctl exec 101 chmod 600 /dev/net/tun

Once you've done the above, then starts installing OpenVPN with the scripts by Nyr.

**UPDATE**
And remember to port forward port 1194 and 53!

-A PREROUTING -i vmbr1 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 53 -j DNAT --to-destination 192.168.100.2:53
-A PREROUTING -i vmbr1 -p udp -m udp --dport 1194 -j DNAT --to-destination 192.168.100.2:1194
-A PREROUTING -i vmbr1 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 1194 -j DNAT --to-destination 192.168.100.2:1194